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Atherosclerosis in Ancient Egyptians: From Autopsies to CT

Atherosclerosis in Ancient Egyptians: From Autopsies to CT

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Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of the majority of CVD; affecting both women and men, is a multifactorial disease with many risk factors which include age, sex, race, lipid levels, obesity, inflammatory and infectious diseases, hypertension, genetic and environmental factors. Several invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques allow the assessment of atherosclerosis from early to late stages of the disease. Although, atherosclerosis is thought to be a disease of modernity, yet, it was found in a large number of ancient human mummies. Computed Tomography evidence of atherosclerosis has been found in mummies of ancient humans; from different cultures, eras, regions and having different diets and lifestyles. Recent researches have concluded that atherosclerotic calcifications in ancient mummies seem to be identical to CT findings in modern patients. Hence, the presence of atherosclerosis in pre-modern human beings raises the possibility of a more basic predisposition to the disease. However, Knowledge on risk factor patterns among ancient Egyptians, including associated conditions such as diabetes, abnormal blood fat levels, and high blood pressure, is incomplete.