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Evaluating of Ketamine, Tramadol, Paracetamol, and Xylazine Combination in Sheep Anesthesia

Evaluating of Ketamine, Tramadol, Paracetamol, and Xylazine Combination in Sheep Anesthesia

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Описание
Ruminants, in general, can be anesthetized successfully by general anesthesia, but with special considerations that may affect anesthesia, like regurgitation, ruminal tympany, salivation, and cardiovascular and respiratory distress. Sheep is one species of ruminants frequently need to anesthetized with the surgical operations, and also frequently used as a model of anesthesia of ruminants. The inhalation anesthesia which is the best type of anesthesia, not always available in the field, and the use of the injectable anesthetics is mandatory. Not all the anesthetic or the analgesic drugs are effective in all species of animals. The economic considerations and limited number of anesthetics and analgesics used in small ruminants may direct the use of drug and technique. Ketamine, paracetamol, tramadol, and xylazine combination as anesthetic protocol is seen suitable for sheep anesthesia. The surgical anesthesia, and the depth of analgesia are increased with the increase of ketamine and xylazine doses, and the addition of tramadol, and paracetamol, enhance the quality of anesthesia and make the induction and recovery are good.