Book DescriptionDistinctive overview of the internal and external pressures responsible for the emergence of modern Japan.Download DescriptionThis book offers a distinctive overview of the internal and external pressures responsible for the making of modern Japan. Louis Cullen rejects western historiography which, he argues, is based on a reluctance to accept that an eastern country could equal the west. Instead he shows that this was not a country in progressive economic and social crisis before 1868 but a highly-developed economy led by highly-rational policymakers. He shows how when an external threat emerged after 1793 the country became on balance more open rather than more oppressive and that Japan displayed remarkable success in negotiation with the western powers in 1853-68 and realism in relations with them thereafter. In the twentieth century, however, armed forces imperfectly controlled by the 1889 constitution and alarm at encroaching western and American interests in Asia and the Pacific ledto an abandonment of realism and to nemesis in China and the Pacific.