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Strength and Organization of the Armies of France, Germany, Austria, Russia, England, Italy, Mexico and Japan (Showing Conditions in July, 1914) (Classic Reprint)

Strength and Organization of the Armies of France, Germany, Austria, Russia, England, Italy, Mexico and Japan (Showing Conditions in July, 1914) (Classic Reprint)

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Excerpt from Strength and Organization of the Armies of France, Germany, Austria, Russia, England, Italy, Mexico and Japan (Showing Conditions in July, 1914)

A great many authorities have been consulted in the preparation of the data, and it is believed that the figures are accurate as far as the data go. The great military powers have been increasing their resources since 1911 to an unknown extent, and at mobilization they had at their disposal much larger armies than would be indicated by the figures given in this study.

As no reliable data have been made public, no accurate estimate can be given of the real fighting force of these nations as it existed at the outbreak of the war.

It will be noted that all the data obtained have been summed up in tables which immediately follow this introduction. It should be borne in mind, however, that the separate studies on the several countries should be carefully considered before drawing conclusions from the tables. Before introducing the tables it seems desirable to formulate a few general facts 011 the organization of foreign armies, as too much insistence can not be laid 011 the fact that a bare inspection of the tables is liable to lead to false conclusions.

Classifying the general remarks 011 organization under appropriate headings we have -

Infantry.

The real basis of the infantry organization of all foreign armies is the battalion. The typical battalion is composed of 4 companies and has a strength on the war footing of some 20 to 25 officers and 900 to 1,100 men, counting from about 900 to 1,000 rifles.

In speaking of a foreign battalion it must, therefore, be borne in mind that its fighting strength is greater than that of our battalion.

Cavalry.

The basis of all foreign cavalry organization is the squadron. The foreign squadron numbers on a war footing from 120 to 150 sabers. Regiments contain from 3 to 0 squadrons.

It will therefore be noted that in speaking of a foreign squadron we mean a force of about one-half the strength of the United States squadron. Similarly, the cavalry regiment of foreign services is about one-half, or less, the strength of our regiments.

Field Artillery.

The battery is usually taken as the unit of field artillery organization. For the purposes of comparison a more correct unit is the battalion.

Leaving Russia aside, it may be said that there are two great systems of field artillery organization.

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