The rate of neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, mental retardation, hearing loss and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is rising in the United States. Although estimates of the prevalence of these disorders vary, figures from the CDC indicate that 4% of all school age children are developmentally disabled. During infancy, many important milestones in behavioral development are shared between human and nonhuman primates. Learning more about the causes of abnormal development in monkeys has provided important insights into the mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities in human infants. This book documents the latest research not commonly found in other references, and provides a comprehensive look at the results from decades of work with nonhuman primates as it relates to child development and disability. Includes hot topics such as early chemical exposures, immunological influences on development, low birth weight, endocrine disrupters, pediatric AIDS, origin of childhood psychopathologies and assisted reproductive technology; Represents the significant body of work accumulated since funding for research on developmental disabilities has increased substantially in recent years.