Contributions to the Mineralogy of the Newark Group in Pennsylvania, Vol. 7

Contributions to the Mineralogy of the Newark Group in Pennsylvania, Vol. 7

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Excerpt from Contributions to the Mineralogy of the Newark Group in Pennsylvania, Vol. 7: January, 1910

The trap masses are, as already mentioned, indicated by prominent elevations, although they can not be accurately mapped on this basis, for in places the sedimentary rocks are exposed far up the flanks of the hills, and again the trap descends to the level of the streams. The exact boundaries between the trap and Shale can, however, be determined by the character of the soil, especially in the case of the northern mass, where the change from red-brown shale soil to the yellow of that derived from the trap is particularly marked. The present map, representing the results of some two weeks of 'field work, has been prepared as carefully as possible with this point in view.

The section through these hills cut by Antietam Creek affords the best View of their character and structural relations, and may therefore be described in detail. Starting from Wamsher's Mill, on the east side' of the creek, one mile north of Lorane Station, on the Philadelphia and Reading Railway (called Exeter on the older maps), and proceeding northwards along the mill-race, the first rock encountered is a bright red sandy shale, dipping 30° north 30° east. With this there are interbedded several layers of' limestone-pebble conglomerate, showing that the large area of this rock to the west does not end in a rounded point, as indicated on the previous maps, but thins out gradually and is replaced eastward by the Shale. A lens of yellow sandstone is also ex posed here, containing an abundance of plant remains, apparently pieces of leaves and stems, but in too fragmentary condition for determination.

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