• @
  • «»{}∼
Chronic Renal Failure - An Ocular Insight

Chronic Renal Failure - An Ocular Insight

3581 руб.
Добавить в корзину
Chronic renal failure, (CRF), previously termed ‘Uraemic poisoning’, impacts multiple organ systems, including the eyes. CRF is an irreversible and progressive process, characterized by a decrease in the Glomerular Filtration Rate with resultant elevation of serum creatinine levels, often accompanied by increased lipid levels. REF The commoner causes of Chronic Renal Failure (C.R.F.) include diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephroangiosclerosis, or primary and secondary glomerulopathies. Various ocular findings related to renal insufficiency have been reported, such as lid oedema, conjunctival pallor, xanthelasmas, glaucoma, etc.REF Ocular morbidity may be directly due to hypertension, uraemia or anaemia; some effects are related to the underlying disease leading to the CRF, while some effects are due to hemodialysis. Since ocular status is considered to be an indicator of the efficacy of metabolic control of the disease (REF), this study was undertaken to determine the types of ocular morbidities seen in individuals with CRF, as well as the severity of the CRF associated with the ophthalmic findings.