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Concentric Circle Model

Concentric Circle Model

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The ingredients approach was used to estimate the cost of one school''s effort to comply with the reading and writing achievement goals as established for Pennsylvania schools in response to the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. The improvement strategies used in this study were aimed at raising the achievement of all students. While successful in moving students to proficient and advanced performance levels as measured by the Pennsylvania System for School Assessment, the intervention strategies failed to move all students to proficiency. Students with disabilities were among those most resistant to the intervention strategies. Three constituents, including the District, the Federal Government, and Teachers and Administrators, bore the three year best estimate cost of $352,264. Personnel costs, specifically classroom teachers, accounted for the largest percentage of this total cost. Teacher after-school work accounted for 44.4% of the total cost.
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