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Shifting Economies

Shifting Economies

33564817
1062.5 руб.
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Описание
Excerpt from Shifting Economies: Craft Production to the Flexible Factory

For most products, design and production require several distinct steps or phases, proceeding more or less sequentially, with some iterations and overlaps. An individual worker, or members of teams or departments, begin with an idea, generated by consumers, manufacturers, suppliers, or others, that seems to define an existing or future customer need. They then experiment with concepts and create a formal concept proposal. This must be translated into a detailed design, and the resulting documentation or blueprints are then made into prototypes. When the designers and prototype builders are satisfied, the completed design becomes a production model, which can be tested and refined further.

The sequence ends with the production model if there is only one job-one product, one customer. In this case, the product and the process needed to make it are "customized" in an organization one might call a "job shop," by workers that in many ways resemble the craftsmen or artisans who made a variety of products before the advent of the modern factory in the 1800s. If there is more than one potential customer, a firm can create different types of organizations aimed at replicating this design with varying degrees of efficiency and output volumes, from a few (batch production) to many (mass production). Developing a mass production or replication system may require a great deal of thought and money. Once this system is in place, the final production process might be relatively simple, such as pressing a phonograph record or copying a software program, or relatively difficult, such as assembling an automobile or a video recorder. Difficulty depends on the nature and number of the components, production or assembly processes, customer requirements, and other factors.

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