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Removal of EDCs and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water

Removal of EDCs and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water

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EDCs and pharmaceuticals are groups of emerging contaminants that have been detected at trace concentrations in waters around the world. These contaminants encompass a vast range of molecular structure and properties. Sparse data exist on the occurrence and fate of these emerging contaminants during water treatment. This project investigated EDC/pharmaceutical occurrence in U.S. drinking water and the efficacy of conventional and advanced water treatment processes to reduce the concentrations of these contaminants. The objectives of this study were to (1) select a diverse group of representative endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals, (2) develop a robust analytical methodology capable of trace detection of target compounds in a variety of water matrices, (3) determine the occurrence of target compounds in U.S. drinking waters, (4) evaluate the EDC/pharmaceutical removal potential of conventional and advanced drinking and reuse water processes, and (5) evaluate computer models to predict target compound properties and fate. This report provides fundamental information on the removal of several classes of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals by conventional and advanced water treatment processes. A detailed description of analytical methods is provided, including information on sample preservation, extraction, and instrumental analysis. The report provides some of the first U.S. occurrence data for these emerging contaminants in raw and finished drinking water supplies. From the treatment and occurrence information, compounds with likely occurrence can be selected for monitoring programs that will represent the fate of various classes of emerging contaminants. Computer models are described that can be used to predict properties and fate of future water contaminants.