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Principles of Political Economy (Classic Reprint)

Principles of Political Economy (Classic Reprint)

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The heavenly bodies, the earth that we inhabit, the elements that it contains, as well as the animals and plants that live on its surface, - in fact, all the things that constitute the material universe and all the phenomena that take place therein,-are the subjects of a distinct group of sciences known as the physical and the natural sciences. But in this vast world there are other subjects no less worthy of study, namely, men themselves, living in society; in fact, they could not possibly live otherwise. The relations that unite men socially form the subject of a separate group of sciences, called the social sciences. As there are among men many kinds of social relations, - moral, legal, economic, political, religious, and, finally, linguistic relations which serve as a vehicle for all the others, - so there are many distinct social sciences, known as ethics, law, political economy, politics, the science of religions, and the science of languages.1 It is true that the lines of demaTable of Contents I The Object of Political Economy 1; II Whether there are Natural Laws In Political Economy 3; III The Formation of Economic Science 7; IV Differences of Opinion concerning Method 13 V The Various Economic Schools of Thought 22; § 1 The Liberal School 23; § 2 The Socialist School " 28; § 3 State Socialism 1 32; § 4 Christian Social Reform 35; § 5 The Doctrine of Solidarity 38; VI The Wants of Man 40; VII What is Wealth? 46 -; VIII What is Value? 49; § 1 Utility 62; § 2 Labor 69; IX What is Price? 64; BOOK II PRODUCTION; PART I THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION; CHAPTER I LABOR; I On the Part played by Labor iu Production 71; II How Labor Produces 73; III The Evolution of Ideas concerning the Productivity of Labor 75; IV Pain as a Factor of Labor 80; V Time as a Factor of Labor 83; CHAPTER IT NATURE; I Environment 86; II Land89; III Raw Materials' 91; IV The Law of Diminishing Returns 92; ix; V Motive Forces 06; VI The I